Zamek Krzyżtopór Castle Ujazd

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enKrzyżtopór Castle Ujazd
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Krzyżtopór is a castle located in the village of Ujazd, Iwaniska commune, Opatów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It was originally built by a Polish nobleman and Voivode of Sandomierz, Krzysztof Ossoliński (1587–1645). The castle was partially destroyed during the Swedish invasion known as The Deluge in 1655, and then reduced to ruin during the war of the Bar Confederation by the Russians in 1770.

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Construction
It is unknown when the construction of this impressive fortress began. Krzysztof Ossoliński’s father, Jan Zbigniew Ossoliński, gave him the village of Ujazd in 1619; however, first documented proof of the construction of the castle comes from 1627, when it was uncompleted. The nobleman probably finished it in 1644, having spent the enormous sum of 30 million Polish złotys on the work. Unfortunately, Ossoliński did not enjoy it for long, as he died suddenly the next year in Kraków.

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The castle was inherited by Ossoliński’s son Krzysztof Baldwin Ossoliński, who died in 1649 in the Battle of Zborów. After his death, the formidable complex was purchased by the family of the Denhoffs, then by the Kalinowskis.

In 1655, during the Swedish invasion of Poland, the castle was captured by the Swedes, who occupied it until 1657, pillaging the entire complex. The damage to the structure was so extensive that after the Swedes’ withdrawal it was not rebuilt, as it was deemed too costly. Several noble families (the Morsztyn[disambiguation needed]s, the Wiśniowieckis and the Pacs) lived in the best preserved, western wing, but the castle otherwise remained in ruins.

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In 1770, during the Bar Confederation, Krzyżtopór, defended by the Confederate units, was seized by the Russians, who completed the building’s ruin. Reportedly, last known inhabitant of the complex, Stanisław Sołtyk, lived there in the years 1782–87, after which time Krzyżtopór has been deserted.

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During the Second World War the complex was again ransacked. A partial remodeling took place in 1971, and in 1980 the Polish Ministry of Internal Affairs decided to rebuild it for use as a rest area for officers. This work was halted in 1981, when martial law was imposed in Poland.

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Design
Even though extensive research has been carried out through the years, historians have been unable to fully explain all aspects of the complex. No documents have been preserved that have enabled determination of the either the date of commencement of the castle’s construction or the date of its completion. The name of the architect is also unknown. Krzysztof Ossoliński was enamored with black magic; while the unique symmetry of the castle is evident even in its ruined state, the hidden meanings that may have been incorporated into virtually every part of the castle are not obvious.

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The very name of the complex is a mysterious one. Krzysztof Ossoliński officially named it Krzysztofory, which is derived from Latin word Christophoros. Later, the name changed to Krzyżtopór, which is a compounding of two Polish words – krzyż („cross”, a symbol of the Catholic faith and Ossoliński’s policies) and topór („axe”, the charge from the family’s coat of arms). Both symbols can be seen on the gate of the castle. Also, above the gate there is the date 1631, but to what this date refers has not been firmly established.

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The castle, built by Swiss engineer Wawrzyniec (Lawrence) Senes (probably born in Sent, Switzerland), is a typical example of the so-called palazzo in fortezza – an intermingling of both palace and fortress. The total size of the complex is 1.3 hectares; the length of perimeter walls is 700 meters; the total area of all interior rooms is around 70 000 square meters. The basic design was based on the palace of Cardinal Alexander Farnese, located in the Italian village of Caprarola. Reportedly, the castle once had 365 windows (as many as days of the year), 52 rooms (as many as weeks of the year) and 12 ballrooms (as many as months of the year). For defensive purposes, the castle was erected upon a rocky hill, making it impossible for an enemy to organize an underground attack.

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Krzyżtopór was furnished with amenities that were rarely seen in the 17th century, such as ventilation and heating system, and unique waterworks that provided all rooms with fresh water. Allegedly, the ceiling in one of dining rooms was made up of an aquarium containing exotic fish. Additionally, a system of dumbwaiters carried food from pantries to the upper floors.

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Currently
The castle, without convenient proximity to main roads and rail connections, is visited by relatively few tourists. However, as walls, bastions and moat are relatively well-preserved, its magnitude is still very impressive. Though it is regarded as a permanent ruin, since around 90 percent of the walls have been preserved, reconstruction has been planned several times. Currently, efforts have been underway to roof the entire complex; however, this ambitious project lacks sufficient funding.

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The castle was prominently featured in James Michener’s 1981 novel, Poland. Several local legends also involve the castle. According to one story, the Ossoliński father and son were punished by God for their vanity, in that neither of them was able to enjoy the castle for long. Other legends claim that under the ruins there is a hidden treasury of the Ossoliński family, guarded by the ghost of Krzysztof Baldwin Ossoliński.

official website of the castle

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plZamek Krzyżtopór Ujazd
Źródło Wikipedia

Krzyżtopór (dawniej Krzysztopór) – dawny zamek położony w miejscowości Ujazd w województwie świętokrzyskim. Wznoszony w XVII wieku. Obecnie znajduje się w stanie ruiny.

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Budowany w latach 1627–1644 przez Krzysztofa Ossolińskiego; nigdy nie został w pełni ukończony. Jest to obszerny zamek w stylu włoskim typu palazzo in fortezza. W 1894 roku Stanisław Tomkowicz przypisał autorstwo projektu budowniczemu znanemu jako Lauretius de Sente (Wawrzyniec Senes). Od strony północnej przylegały niegdyś piękne ogrody w stylu włoskim.

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Historia powstania pałacu i jego świetności pozostaje wciąż nie do końca poznana. Jest to powodem do narastania wokół niego legend. Jedną z nich jest opowieść o zastosowaniu w pałacu symboliki liczb nawiązującej do kalendarza: okien miał tyle, ile dni w roku, pokoi tyle, ile tygodni; sal wielkich tyle, ile miesięcy, a cztery narożne jego baszty odpowiadały liczbie kwartałów. Brak zachowanych planów budowy oraz sztychów sprzed przebudowy w XVIII wieku uniemożliwia dziś faktyczne odtworzenie wizerunku zamku z połowy XVII wieku.

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Jego fundator cieszył się nim krótko. Krzysztof Ossoliński zmarł nagle w rok po ukończeniu budowy. Pozostawił on po sobie bardzo zadłużony majątek, który odziedziczył jego syn Krzysztof Baldwin Ossoliński. Po śmierci Krzysztofa Baldwina Ossolińskiego (1649) pałac odziedziczył brat fundatora Jerzy Ossoliński, a po jego śmieci (1650) zamek dziedziczy jego córka Urszula zamężna z Samuelem Kaliniwskim. W posiadaniu rodziny Kalinowskich zamek pozostał do roku 1701. Pałac został ograbiony w czasie potopu przez Szwedów (1655). Zamieszkany do roku 1770, kiedy został zniszczony przez wojska rosyjskie w czasie obrony przez zwolenników Konfederacji Barskiej.

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Obecnie pałac ma status trwałej ruiny. W dawnej klasyfikacji zabytków był zaliczony do klasy zerowej. Budowla jest ruiną o znacznym stopniu zachowania, stąd interesującą do zwiedzania. W jej skład wchodzą obszerne fortyfikacje: bastiony, fosa, ślady umocnień i mostów.

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Nazwa ewoluowała. Krzyż był symbolem wiary i polityki wojewody, topór herbem Ossolińskich. Oba te symbole są umieszczone na bramie wjazdowej do pałacu. Sam budowniczy nazywał pałac mianem Krzysztofory, co najprawdopodobniej wywodzi się od źródłosłowu jego imienia (gr. Christophoros – Krzysztof). Klucz ziemski Iwaniska, w którym leżała miejscowość Ujazd, nabyty został przez Ossolińskich od Ligęzów na początku XVII wieku.

oficjalna strona www zamku

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